Voici les offres d’emploi disponibles actuellement à l’ambassade des États-Unis au Sénégal. Cliquez sur le lien pour en savoir plus.
Peace Corps Programming and Training Specialist for Community Economy Development (PTS CED) (Closes August 27, 2017)
Corps de la Paix Américain
Almadies Lot N/1 TF23231
Dakar R.P. (Sénégal)
The United States Peace Corps in Senegal seeks a Programming and Training Specialist for Community Economy Development (PTS CED) who will be located at the Peace Corps office in Dakar, Senegal. Under the supervision of the Associate Peace Corps Director (APCD) for the Community Economic Development (CED) in Peace Corps/Senegal, the Programming and Training Specialist (PTS) will provide on-going support to the implementation of the CED program in Senegal and conduct training activities for Community Economic Development Volunteers (PCVs).
The CED PTS supports the Associate Peace Corps Director in the planning, researching, managing and evaluating of the CED program and assists in providing technical and administrative support to Peace Corps Volunteers and Trainees. The CED PTS also serves as the head technical trainer during Pre-Service and In-Service trainings (PST/IST), enabling training and programming to be fully integrated into the CED program. The candidates must hold the following qualifications:
- A Bachelor’s Degree in economics, finances or Business administration;
- Three years of experience in a similar position;
- Experience working for profit or nonprofit economic development or business sector in Senegal;
- Excellent verbal and written communication skills in French and English equivalent to Level 4. Preferred proficiency of a national language of Senegal.
- Computer proficiency (Microsoft Office; Microsoft Outlook and Internet Explorer)
- Experience working in a multicultural setting;
- Experience in project design and implementation;
- Proven experience in training design and implementation Experience supporting/coordinating people from other cultures;
- Ability to provide business training and coaching;
- Ability to train and facilitate trainings with American and Senegalese audiences;
- Ability to multi-task and to work in a fast-paced work environment;
- Understanding of American adult learning approaches;
- Understanding of Senegal economic development policies and strategies;
- Ability to work independently with limited supervision;
- Ability to be organized and detail oriented in creating efficient processes;
- Capacity to travel frequently throughout Senegal and often in rough roads
The full position description and requirement are available upon request at HRSenegal@peacecorps.gov.
Interested and qualified applicants for the position should submit the following:
- Letter of interest/motivation, in English, addressing your experience and suitability for the position;
- A current resume (CV) in English+3 professional references;
- Any other documentation (e.g. certified copy of educational certificates, degrees earned, driving license) that addresses the qualification requirements of desired position;
- Certified copy of identity card or certificate of nationality and “extrait of casier Judiciaire;
- Interested applicants must have ability to pass security and medical exams
All applications are required electronically and in English to HRSenegal@peacecorps.gov with “PTS CED” in the subject line no later than 00:00 by Sunday August 27, 2017.
Incomplete and/or late application will not be entertained, nor applications not submitted in English.
Only those candidates short-listed for an interview will be contacted. NO TELEPHONE CALLS PLEASE.
The United States Peace Corps is an Equal Opportunity Employer.
Criminal and Fraud Investigator (Clôturé le 17 août 2017)
U.S. Mission DAKAR, SENEGAL
VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT NUMBER: DKR-2017-041
OPEN TO: All Interested Candidates / All Sources
POSITION: Criminal and Fraud Investigator
OPENING DATE: August 3rd, 2017
CLOSING DATE: August 17th, 2017
WORK HOURS: Full-time, 40 hours/week
SALARY: Ordinarily Resident (OR): FSN10/FP5
Not-Ordinarily Resident (NOR): FP-5*
*Final grade/step for NORs will be determined by Washington.
ALL ORDINARILY RESIDENT (OR) APPLICANTS (See Appendix A for definition) MUST HAVE THE REQUIRED WORK AND/OR RESIDENCY PERMITS TO BE ELIGIBLE FOR CONSIDERATION.
The U.S. Mission in Dakar, Senegal is seeking eligible and qualified applicants for the position of Criminal and Fraud Investigator.
BASIC FUNCTION OF POSITION:
Incumbent is responsible for conducting investigations of passport fraud, visa fraud, alien smuggling, human trafficking and other criminal actions that impact the national security of the United States. Incumbent builds and maintains relationships with middle to high level contacts in Senegalese law enforcement authorities, such as the National Police, the Gendarmerie, and the Ministry of Interior. Incumbent reports directly to the Assistant Regional Security Officer for Investigations and is responsible for supervising other Locally Engaged Staff (LES) when they are involved in supporting Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) criminal investigations.
Applicants must address each required qualification listed below with specific and comprehensive information supporting each item. Failure to do so may result in a determination that the applicant is not qualified.
- EDUCATION: University degree in one of the following areas: Law, Security, International Relations, Economics, Politics, Language, and/or Journalism.
- EXPERIENCE: A minimum of three years of progressively responsible experience in criminal or civil investigations in the civil or criminal law/justice field in Senegal is required.
- LANGUAGE: Oral and written English Level 4, Fluent in French Level 4. (This will be tested.)
- SKILLS AND ABILITIES: As one of the principal law enforcement advisors, candidates must be able to maintain extensive contacts with senior U.S. law enforcement authorities assigned to Senegal and Senegalese law enforcement authorities. Ability to exercise initiative and resourcefulness in obtaining information and evidence. Ability to train and supervise the work of others. Ability to draft reports in precise English. Proficiency in computer applications such as Microsoft Office and typing is required. Incumbent must be able to write detailed reports and conduct suspect, witness, and victim interviews.
Interpersonal Skills: Work as part of a team, collaborate with colleagues and maintain poise in the face of resistance or contrary opinions. (This will be tested.)
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: The complete position description listing all of the duties and responsibilities may be obtained on our website at https://sn.usembassy.gov/embassy/jobs/
and/or by contacting the Human Resources Office DakarRecruitment@state.gov.
SELECTION PROCESS: When qualified, applicants who are U.S. Citizen Eligible Family Members (USEFMs) and/or preference-eligible U.S. Veterans are given a preference in hiring. Therefore, it is essential that these applicants make themselves known as having a hiring preference and specifically address the required qualifications above in their application.
HIRING PREFERENCE ORDER:
- USEFM who is ALSO a preference-eligible U.S. Veteran
- USEFM OR a preference-eligible U.S. Veteran
- FS on LWOP
ADDITIONAL SELECTION CRITERIA:
- Management may consider the following when determining successful candidacy: nepotism, conflicts of interest, budget, and residency status.
- Current OR employees serving a probationary period are not eligible to apply. Current OR employees with an Overall Summary Rating of Needs Improvement or Unsatisfactory on their most recent Employee Performance Report (EPR) are not eligible to apply.
- Current NOR employees hired on a Family Member Appointment (FMA) or a Personal Service Agreement (PSA) are not eligible to apply within the first 90 calendar days of their employment, unless they have a When Actually Employed (WAE) work schedule.
- The candidate must be able to obtain and hold a non-sensitive security clearance.
HOW TO APPLY: Applicants must submit the following documents to be considered:
- Universal Application for Employment (UAE) (Form DS-174), which is available on our website or by contacting Human Resources. (See “For Further Information” above); and
- Any additional documentation that supports or addresses the requirements listed above (e.g. transcripts, degrees, etc.)
IMPORTANT: Applicants claiming a U.S. Veteran’s preference must submit written documentation confirming eligibility (e.g., Member Copy 4 of Form DD-214, Letter from the Veteran’s Administration, or certification documenting eligibility under the VOW Act with an expected discharge no later than 120 days after the certification is submitted) by the closing date of the vacancy announcement. If the written documentation confirming eligibility is not received in the HR office by the closing date of the vacancy announcement, the U.S. Veteran’s preference will not be considered in the application process. Specific criteria for receiving a U.S. Veteran’s preference may be found in HR/OE’s Family Member Employment Policy (FMEP).
WHERE TO APPLY:
Mailing Address: B.P 49
E-mail Address: DakarRecruitment@state.gov
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY: The U.S. Mission provides equal opportunity and fair and equitable treatment in employment to all people without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, political affiliation, marital status, or sexual orientation. The Department of State also strives to achieve equal employment opportunity in all personnel operations through continuing diversity enhancement programs. The EEO complaint procedure is not available to individuals who believe they have been denied equal opportunity based upon marital status or political affiliation. Individuals with such complaints should avail themselves of the appropriate grievance procedures, remedies for prohibited personnel practices, and/or courts for relief.
Appendix A – DEFINITIONS
Eligible Family Member (EFM): An EFM for employment purposes is defined an individual who meets all of the following criteria:
- U.S. Citizen or not a U.S. Citizen; and
- Spouse or same-sex domestic partner (as defined in 3 FAM 1610); or
- Child, who is unmarried and under 21 years of age or, regardless of age, is incapable of self-support. The term “child” shall include, in addition to natural offspring, stepchild, adopted child, and a child under legal guardianship of employee, spouse, or same-sex domestic partner when such child is expected to be under legal guardianship until 21 years of age and when dependent upon and normally residing with the guardian; or
- Parent (including stepparents and legally adoptive parents) of employee, spouse, or same-sex domestic partner, when such parent is at least 51 percent dependent on the employee for support; or
- Sister or brother (including stepsisters and stepbrothers, or adoptive sisters or brothers) of the employee, spouse, or same-sex domestic partner when such sibling is at least 51 percent dependent on the employee for support, unmarried, and under 21 years of age, or regardless of age, incapable of self-support; and
- Listed on the travel orders or approved Form OF-126 of a sponsoring employee, i.e., a direct-hire Foreign Service, Civil Service, or uniformed service member who is permanently assigned to or stationed abroad or, as appropriate, at an office of the American Institute in Taiwan; and
- Is under chief of mission authority.
U.S. Citizen Eligible Family Member (USEFM): A USEFM is an individual who meets all of the following criteria:
- S. Citizen; and
- Spouse or same-sex domestic partner (as defined in 3 FAM 1610) of the sponsoring employee; or
- Child of the sponsoring employee who is unmarried and at least 18 years old; and
- Listed on the travel orders or approved Form OF-126 of a sponsoring employee, i.e., a direct-hire Foreign Service, Civil Service, or uniformed service member who is permanently assigned to or stationed abroad or, as appropriate, at an office of the American Institute in Taiwan; and resides at the sponsoring employee’s post of assignment abroad, or as appropriate, at an office of the American Institute in Taiwan; and is under chief of mission authority; or
- resides at an Involuntary Separate Maintenance Allowance (ISMA) location authorized under 3 FAM 3232.2; or
- Currently receives a U.S. Government retirement annuity or pension from a career in the U.S. Foreign Service or Civil Service.
Appointment Eligible Family Member (AEFM): An AEFM is an individual who meets all of the following criteria:
- S. Citizen; and
- Spouse or same-sex domestic partner (as defined in 3 FAM 1610) of the sponsoring employee; or
- Child of the sponsoring employee who is unmarried and at least 18 years old; and
- Listed on the travel orders or approved Form OF-126 of a sponsoring employee, i.e., a direct-hire Foreign Service, Civil Service, or uniformed service member who is permanently assigned to or stationed abroad or, as appropriate, at an office of the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT); and
- Is under chief of mission authority; and
- Is residing at the sponsoring employee’s post of assignment abroad or, as appropriate, at an office of the American Institute in Taiwan; and
- Does NOT currently receive a U.S. Government retirement annuity or pension from a career in the U.S. Foreign Service or Civil Service.
Member of Household (MOH): A MOH is an individual who meets all of the following criteria.
- A MOH is someone who accompanies or joins a direct-hire Foreign Service, Civil Service, or uniformed service member permanently assigned to or stationed abroad or, as appropriate, at an office of the American Institute in Taiwan; and
- A MOH must be officially declared to the COM by the sponsoring employee as part of his/her household; and
- A MOH is under COM authority;
- A MOH may include a parent, unmarried partner, other relative, or adult child;
- A MOH may or may not be a U.S. Citizen;
- A MOH is not an EFM;
- A MOH is not listed on the travel orders or approved Form F-126 of a sponsoring employee.
Not Ordinarily Resident (NOR) – An individual who meets the following criteria:
- An EFM, USEFM or AEFM of a direct-hire Foreign Service, Civil Service, or uniformed service member permanently assigned or stationed abroad, or as appropriate, at an office of the American Institute in Taiwan; or
- Has diplomatic privileges and immunities; and
- Is eligible for compensation under the FS or GS salary schedule; and
- Has a U.S. Social Security Number (SSN); and
- Is not a citizen of the host country; and
- Does not ordinarily reside in the host country; and
- Is not subject to host country employment and tax laws.
Ordinarily Resident (OR) – An individual who meets the following criteria:
- A citizen of the host country; or
- A non-citizen of the host country (including a U.S. citizen or a third-country national) who is locally resident and has legal and/or permanent resident status within the host country and/or who is a holder of a non-diplomatic visa/work and/or residency permit; and/or
- Is subject to host country employment and tax laws.
Supervisory Administrative Management Specialist - FSN-105 (Clôturé le 7 août 2017)
SUBJECT: JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT – FSN/2017/02
OPENING DATE: July 17, 2017
CLOSING DATE: August 7, 2017
TO: Internal Candidates Only
JOB TITLE: SUPERVISORY ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST – FSN-105
WORK HOURS: Full time position – 40 hours/week
GRADE: FSN-11/with the possibility of hiring the employee at a trainee level
Note: Due to the number of applications we receive, only applicants who have been short listed will be contacted by USAID.
A– BASIC FUNCTION OF POSITION
This position is located within the Regional Executive Office (REXO), USAID/Senegal. The purpose of this position is to serve as Supervisory Management Specialist (SMS) to the Regional Supervisory Executive Officer (RS/EXO) and Regional USDH Deputy Executive Officer. The SMS is supervised directly by the USDH RS/EXO. S/He is responsible for ensuring the timely provision of high quality administrative and logistical support services to USAID/Senegal Regional Mission.
The Supervisory Management Specialist has major supervisory and leadership responsibility for the Information Resource Management and Procurement sections of the EXO office. In the absence of the RS/EXO and Regional USDH Deputy Executive Officer, the Supervisory Management Specialist oversees the entire EXO operation and serves as a primary advisor to the Mission Director and Deputy Mission Directors on all administrative and management matters. S/He is responsible for policy formulation, implementation, data collection and analysis, consultation, monitoring and advisory functions of a wide range and complex nature.
The Supervisory Management Specialist is an integral member of the USAID/Senegal Management Team. S/He is tasked with special assignments and reports related to the functions of any Executive Office; serves as business advisor and functions as a senior Foreign Service National (FSN) expert on administrative and management matters.
The Supervisory Management Specialist supports the bilateral and regional programs and other offices on an as needed basis. Travel may be required in support of regional operations (Sahel Regional Office, Niger, Mauritania, Burkina Faso, and Chad).
B- MAJOR DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Works with RS/EXO in establishing direction, aligning the Information Resource Management and Procurement staff, motivating and inspiring them. Is responsible for ensuring that work assigned to the Information Resource Management and Procurement staff by incumbent or the RS/EXO is carried out by coordinating and supporting the efforts of the employees. In this working environment, coordinates the assessment of team success in meeting Agency, Mission as well as Office goals and values, through coaching, facilitating, training and advising. Installs better work habits such as teamwork, productive performance, customer focus etc. Makes sure team interaction is continuously present and roles defined. Facilitates team activities and consensus building, and assesses team weaknesses and strengths. Intercedes with RS/EXO and Regional USDH Deputy Executive Officer on behalf of the Information Resource Management and Procurement staff members, if necessary.
The Incumbent has primary responsibility for planning, budgeting, organizing, controlling and problem solving. S/he is the first line supervisor of the Information Resource Management and Procurement staff. With these units, the incumbent plans, assigns and reviews work, negotiates their work objectives, provides feedback on performance, writes their evaluation, discusses performance measures, identifies training needs of employees, makes nominations for awards, and effects disciplinary measures, in consultation with the RS/EXO. The incumbent is pivotal in the selection of staff members; approves leave, and timesheets.
The Incumbent coordinates with Washington on all USAID/Senegal EXO matters in the absence or under the direction of the RS/EXO and Regional USDH Deputy Executive Officer. Also under the direction of the RS/EXO is key in negotiations for a variety of services for USAID outside of ICASS – this would include, but not limited to, rental of temporary housing, conference or training rooms, catering events, rental of vehicles in support of a surge requests, etc.
- Technical and Special Projects 25%
Provides effective management and supervision to the Information Resource Management and Procurement sections.
Initiates or drafts Mission policies related to the functions of an Executive Office ensuring adherence to internal control procedures and regulations.
Is assigned technical and special projects such as drafting/preparing an action plan for the Mission Control Review Committee (MCRC), follow up on Pipeline Obligation and Procurement (POP) reviews, development of annual budget, procurement and Information Technology plans as directed by the RS/EXO.
Jointly develops the annual resource requirements and staffing needs; the reinforcement of internal control procedures and policies for administrative operations.
- Management functions 75%
a. The Supervisory Management Specialist has primary supervisory responsibility over the following functions:
- Procurement: Coordinates administrative procurement activities with individuals who are responsible for the acquisition of goods and services for the Mission; conducts contracts negotiation and keeps Mission abreast of new developments. Reviews USAID Senegal data for accuracy and compliance with established guidelines. Coordinates GLAAS activities – Plays Regional Site Administrator, Subject Matter Expert (SME) and GLAAS main Point of Contact (POC) roles.
- Personal Property: Manages Information Technology equipment and overall NXP reporting requirements to AIDW. Oversights ICASS NXP internal controls and quality assurance of USAID-own properties;
- Facilities Management: ICASS quality assurance;
- Motor vehicle operations: USAID/W reporting requirements, resource requirements and ICASS quality assurance;
- Information Resource Management: Design, installation and maintenance of information technology infrastructure (ITI); IT systems administration; technical support to users, computer training, and software support; applications design and development; and communication and records management.
b. Plays a major role in planning, budgeting and management analysis:
Development of Operating Expenses budget in collaboration with the RS/EXO, the Regional USDH Deputy Executive Officer and the Controller; subsequent monitoring of expenditures and other resources. Coordinates quarterly 1311 Reviews with FM.
c. Administrative approval of vouchers and other administrative requests:
Participates in the continuous evaluation of the Mission activities to ensure appropriate and efficient use of USG resources. Has authority to sign contract actions processed by use of the Government-wide Purchase Card for purchases not exceeding $3,000 per transaction and $10,000 per month, to approve payment vouchers, personnel time and attendance reports, leave requests and other administrative requests.
d. ICASS administration – Service Monitoring and Evaluation:
Serves as an active member of the post ICASS Budget Committee, and support the USAID ICASS representative on the post ICASS Council, in that capacity conducts periodic analyses of ICASS services. Liaises with State/ICASS service providers to ensure effective and timely provision of administrative support services, including motor pool, residential maintenance and leasing, office building support, property management and other ICASS-supported services.
Participates in the discussion of issues, requests revision of invoices when needed and coordinates any action related to effectiveness of services.
Develops, interprets and insures implementation of internal administrative management policies, regulations and procedures for delivery of management services in the Mission.
Maintains and revises ICASS workload counts for the services received by USAID Senegal and other Missions in the region supported by USAID Senegal (Mauritania, Chad, Niger, and Burkina Faso). Reviews all ICASS invoices for correctness; liaises with State/ICASS to assure charges are correct for services received. Participates with other agencies in carrying out joint policies and operations. Analyzes Mission management requirements, and develop administrative budgets.
e. Support Implementing Partners:
Advises and assists Implementing Partners (IP) in processing customs clearances, and provides guidance on administrative management and personnel administration. Interprets agreement support requirements and applicability in-country.
f. Support Satellite offices within Senegal:
Provides office support, security, and administrative procedures including, but not limited to office space and utilities management.
C- QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE
a. Education: Bachelor’s degree or equivalent in Public or Business Administration, Liberal Arts or other related fields with emphasis in general business management or in Information Management required.
b. Prior Work Experience: A minimum of 5 years of progressively responsible demonstrated administrative experience.
c. Post Entry Training: PFA, PDM, COR/AOR are required.
d. Language Proficiency: Incumbent must be fluent in English and French (level IV). Good working knowledge in Wolof language is highly desirable.
e. Job Knowledge: Knowledge of management principles, techniques, and practices preferred. Must have a good knowledge of, or the potential to acquire knowledge of, USAID policies, regulations, methodologies, and documentation. Must have knowledge of generally accepted business management principles and have an understanding of Senegalese Government laws, regulations (taxation and procurement), and local business practices. Knowledge on management of Information Technology and Communication systems is desirable.
f. Skills and Abilities: The Incumbent must possess adequate skills which demonstrate a keen interpersonal ability and have proven leadership, supervisory and administrative management ability; Must have strong intellectual and conceptual skills needed to accomplish EXO goals; Strong management skills are required to develop and implement administrative activities involving technical assistance and training; Supervisory skills are required to monitor and evaluate the performance of multi-disciplinary teams of support personnel; Must be able to obtain, analyze and evaluate data of complex nature to prepare factual and analytical reports as required; Must have strong communication and information management skills; Must have the ability to effectively, and often independently, advocate EXO management and policy positions with Mission senior management and other USAID employees.
D- POSITION ELEMENTS
- Supervision Received: Works under the supervision of the Mission Regional Supervisory Executive Officer, who sets objectives of a broad nature; incumbent handles all work independently according to policies or accepted practice and resolves problems which arise in the Management Office by determining approaches to be taken and methods to be used. Supervisor’s review when necessary is limited to adherence to broad policy or procedure. The majority of assignments accrue from the normal flow of office functions.
- Supervision Exercised: Is the first line supervisor of the IT Systems Manager and the Administrative Management Assistant. Has second level supervision authority over 7 other FSN staff of the Procurement and Information Resources Management sections.
- Available Guidelines: Various statutes and regulations are contained in USG Foreign Services and USAID specific ADS or Manuals; Mission orders; in-house workflow processes and control; and general directives from the Regional Supervisory Executive Officer and Regional USDH Deputy Executive Officer.
- Exercise of Judgment: The Supervisory Management Specialist is expected to use a high degree of independent judgment in the performance of his/her responsibilities. Creativity, flexibility, and persuasiveness are strongly encouraged to maximize the impact of the USAID administrative decisions and actions. The work involves attention to a wide variety of details simultaneously, and the incumbent must be innovative and resourceful to get the job done and achieve results at the same time assuring compliance USAID regulations and statutory provisions.
- Authority to Make Commitments: Incumbent has full authority within the Administrative area with the exception of signatory or verbal authority involving commitment of US funds or major Mission policy issues; authority to negotiate terms of service contracts, including costs, subject only to the final concurrence of the supervisor, and funds availability. Approves procurement requests under $500 and petty cash procurements. Has authority to sign contract actions processed by use of the Government-wide Purchase Card for purchases not exceeding $3,000 per transaction and $10,000 per month.
- Nature, Level and Purpose of Contacts: High level contacts with Senegal Customs, Police, Immigration, tax officials to discuss issues within their custody in order to facilitate USAID operations in Senegal. Works on Contracts with senior officers as well as other employees of the Mission, with USAID/W, other Missions, other Agencies (Embassy, PD, Peace Corps etc.), and private companies and prominent business people.
- Time Required to Reach Full Performance Level: One year.
HOW TO APPLY: Interested applicants MUST submit a complete application package which includes:
- A cover letter
- An a-302-3 form (form can be found on this web site: http://usaid.gov/senegal under “doing business with USAID – Job Opportunities – Application form”)
- A detailed resume plus 3 to 5 references
- Copies of relevant degrees
Incomplete applications will be rejected.
All the above mentioned documents are REQUIRED and must be prepared in English. The documents should be addressed by email to the attention of Human Resources Specialist at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Email subject: JOB ANNOUNCEMENT FSN/2017/02 – SUPERVISORY ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST
DEADLINE TO APPLY: August 7, 2017
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO): The US Mission in Senegal provides equal opportunity and fair and equitable treatment in employment to all people without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, political affiliation, marital status, or sexual orientation. USAID/Senegal also strives to achieve equal employment opportunity in all personnel operations through continuing diversity enhancement programs.
The EEO complaint procedure is not available to individuals who believe they have been denied equal opportunity based upon marital status or political affiliation. Individuals with such complaints should avail themselves of the appropriate grievance procedures, remedies for prohibited personnel practices, and/or courts for relief.